Standard Operating Procedures For Hepatitis B Vaccination In Adults
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Standard Operating Procedures

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Jan 13 2022


Hepatitis B is a disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which can lead to serious health problems in the liver, including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Transmission of the HBV occurs when an individual comes into contact with the blood, semen, or other body fluid of an infected person. Many people that are infected with the HBV do not have any symptoms, so it is emphasized for high-risk individuals to be screened and vaccinated against Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are major causes of acute and chronic liver diseases (e.g. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) globally and cause an estimated 1.4 million deaths annually. It is estimated that, at present, 248 million people are living with chronic HBV infection, and that 110 million persons are HCV-antibody positive, of which 80 million have active viraemic infection. The burden of chronic HBV and HCV remains disproportionately high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Asia and Africa. In Tanzania, the prevalence of HBV ranges from 5.5 - 20% while that of HCV is below 5%. This was reported in several subpopulation studies in different parts of the country

Tanzania introduced Hepatitis B Vaccine in 2002, which is routinely offered to infants in the National Immunization Program. Despite this notable intervention, the country remains with a pool of unvaccinated groups who were born before 2002. Furthermore, Hepatitis B vaccinations may be required in certain circumstances such as during pilgrimage, international sports, games, travellers and other international events. Also, the HBV vaccination is required to groups such as health workers, military and security agencies and long-distance truck drivers who are at a higher risk of exposure due to the nature of their occupations. In addition, HBV vaccination is important in key and vulnerable populations to reduce transmission of the disease.